Success Project

47 The learning or world café process is both easy and simple to execute. The process starts with round table discussions of about 20 minutes in small groups, preferable with 5-10 people. After the discussion where notes were taken, the group members move to another table leaving one of them to host the next group. The group members can choose to go the next table as a group or to rather select a different table of her/his interest. The host that remains on the table explains to the new group members what was discussed by the previous group before beginning the new discussion. Every table can pose the same question to each group joining it, but sometimes the question can be changed depending on the aims of the learning or world café. At the end of the process, the tables or/and individuals are welcomed to share their insights to the participants of the learning or world café. The insights or results can be visualized in many ways, starting with, for example, notes or drawings in order to make it more interesting and understandable (The world café, 2023). 4.2.5. Fishbowl The fishbowl method can be categorized as a form of active learning and/or peer learning and is based on a constructivist teaching approach (Wolfe, 2003). As Pearson et al. (2018) together with Miller and Benz (2008) suggest, fishbowls are utilised to encourage discussion (part-taking and initiating) and they are considered especially useful for collective problem-solving activities in large class settings. In the fishbowl method, as explained by Han and Hamilton (2022), (see also Dutt, 1997), the lecturer/instructor creates space for an inner and outer circle. The participants in the inner circle lead and engage in the discussion while the outer circle participants listen and observe. The name “fishbowl” is derived from this setting, as the inner circle is a kind of a fishbowl into which people in the outer circle look inward (see Figure 4.2). The topic to be discussed is initiated by the instructor, who also can be the moderator, after which the discussion may flow freely for a pre-set time. During the discussion, all the inner circle members need to participate in the discussion, while no one from the outer circle may speak. However, the roles of members can also be changed such that when a person in the inner circle feels that they have nothing further to contribute, they can stand up and appoint a person from the outer circle to replace them. In addition, an outer circle member can also volunteer to jump into the inner circle and start engaging in the discussion by tapping on someone’s shoulder and requesting to take their place. The groups can also be switched after a certain period of time. The main aim of the approach is that all participants take on both roles during the exercise. In some versions of the method, the outer circle can also be asked for advice and guidance if no solutions or new ideas emerge (Miller & Benz, 2008). The activity is generally followed by a debriefing session to evaluate the discussion and to review what was learned. Midevaluation sessions can also be initiated by the lecturer (Dutt, 1997).